#### Review

• Set notation?

#### Probability

• Conditional probability
• Independence
• Bayes’ theorem
##### Conditional probability
• Important for at least two reasons: (1) can calculate probabilities for complicated events by breaking it into steps, and (2) gives a way to adjust probabilities based on new information
• Intuitively, if you know $$E_1$$ has occurred, make $$S = E_1$$ the new sample space
• Conditional probability: $$P(E_2 | E_1) = P(E_2 \cap E_1)/P(E_1)$$. This tells us how probability in the new sample space relates to probability in the original one
1. Multiplication rule: $$P(E_2 \cap E_1) = P(E_1)P(E_2 | E_1)$$ “probability that two things both happen”
• Deck of 52 cards, 4 are aces. What is $$P(E)$$ for $$E =$$ { first two cards are aces }.
• $$E_1 =$$ { first card is an ace }, $$E_2 =$$ { second card is an ace }, 4/52, then new sample space has 51 cards, 3 of them aces (about 0.45%)
• mean(replicate(10000, all(sample(1:52, 2) <= 4)))
##### Independence
• One of the most important concepts in statistics. An underlying assumption of many common statistical methods. Something to always keep in mind…
• Independence: $$E_1$$ and $$E_2$$ are independent if $$P(E_2 | E_1) = P(E_2)$$
• Knowing that one has happened doesn’t change the probability of the other one
• If I toss a coin 10 times, what is the probability the 10th toss is H given the first 9 are T?
• Otherwise, they are called dependent
• (In)dependence can make or break the accuracy/success of a probability model. Common error to believe/assume things are independent when they aren’t
• e.g. 2016 election: predictions that showed Secy. Clinton with a high chance of winning relied on independence
• e.g. Financial crisis: more houses foreclosing in a neighborhood lowered property values, increasing probability of mortgage problems for other houses in the same neighborhood

• Multiplication rule: for independent events, $$P(E_1 \cap E_2) = P(E_1)P(E_2)$$
• This works for more than 2 events: e.g. probability of all $$n$$ coin tosses being H multiply (1/2) $$n$$ times, get $$1/2^n$$

• Drawing with and without replacement (check out the sample() function in R)
• Deck of cards with replacement: draw one card, record it, return it, shuffle, draw a second card
• Deck of cards without replacement: draw one card, record it, set it aside, draw another from the remaining cards

• Important: which version of the multiplication rule should you use? Depends on (in)dependence
• Important: multiplication rule is for both events, addition rule is for either event
• Venn diagrams

##### Bayes’ theorem
• Suppose some facial recognition software attempts to identify people with an outstanding arrest warrant from a database of photos. It inputs a photo of a person and classifies as a match to the database, or not a match. If the photo input is someone does not have a warrant, there is a 1% chance it will mistakenly match them anyway, but it is 100% accurate otherwise.
• This software is given camera feeds from all over the city
• There is a match. What’s the probability the match is accurate?
• Let $$M$$ denote a declared match, and $$W$$ denote that the person actually has an outstanding warrant. We know $$P(M | W) = 1$$, and $$P(M | W^c) = .99$$
• Do we have enough information?